Augustus (Estern Roman Empire) AD 402 - 450
Flavius Theodosius (AD 401 - 450):
Son of Arcadius and Aelia Eudoxia;
Brother of Aelia Pulcheria;
Husband of Aelia Eudocia;
Father of Licinia Eudoxia;
Brother-in-law of Marcian;
Father-in-law of Valentinian III and Petronius Maximus;
Hephew of Honorius;
Half-Cousin of Valentinian III and Honoria;
Grandson of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla.
AD 402 - 408 - co-Augustus with Arcadius
AD 408 - 450 - Sole reign
Paralel rulers of the Western Roman Empire:
Honorius (AD 393 - 423)
Constantine III - Usurper (AD 407 - 411)
Constans II - Usurper (AD 408 - 411)
Priscus Attalus (AD 409 - 410; 415 - 416)
Jovinus - Usurper (AD 411 - 413)
Sebastianus - Usurper (AD 412 - 413)
Constantius III (AD 421)
Johanes - Usurper (AD 423 - 425)
Valentinian III (AD 425 - 455)
Theodosius II was the son of Arcadius and Aelia Eudoxia and was elevated to the purple at the ripe old age of nine months with the Persian king Yezdegerd I as his guardian. One way or another, he did ascend the throne peacefully upon the death of his father in 408, with the government of the empire in hands of a series of efficient administrators. His first regent was Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect under Arcadius, who improved Constantinople's food supplies, established good relations with the Western Empire, arranged for a treaty with the Persians, strengthened the Danubian provinces against the new menace, the Huns, and fortified Constantinople with new walls, some them still standing tall. In 414, however, he was eliminated by Theodosius's sister, Aelia Pulcheria, who remained the commanding presence in the Eastern Empire until the death of the emperor and even after that. Pulcheria was a devout Christian who vowed to remain chaste, and did. Under her regency and then supervision Theodosius installed Valentinian on the Western throne, and took some Dalmatian territory in the process. She was instrumental in the creation of a University in Constantinople, which Greek-speaking professors dominated. The outstanding event of the reign was the promulgation of a new law code, the Theodosian Code, which combined pagan and Christian tradition, complimented Justinian's Code, and for long remained the legal framework of the Empire. During the final years of Theodosius, who never actually had a chance to rule, the decisive personality in the court was the eunuch Zstommas who for a time even eclipsed Pulcheria. Zstommas, however, preferred to buy off the Empire's major headache, the Huns, and his policies produced discontent which resulted in his fall from favor. As for Theodosius, he had his own fall, in his case from his horse as he was riding near the capital. The injury he suffered proved fatal and he died soon thereafter. He appears to have been a gentle soul with the calling of a philosopher, a literary man, and a theologian, not a man of affairs. Nonetheless, he was titular ruler for forty-nine years and those who ruled in his place were largely capable and efficient statesmen expertly supervised by Anthemius and Pulcheria.
Mints: Alexandria, Antioch, Aquileia, Constantinopolis, Cyzicus, Heraclea, Mediolanum, Nicomedia, Ravenna, Thessalonica.
List all Theodosius II coins in the Catalog.